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Bukharan Jews used the Persian language to communicate among themselves and later developed Bukhori, a distinct dialect of the Tajiki-Persian language with certain linguistic traces of Hebrew.This language provided easier communication with their neighboring communities and was used for all cultural and educational life among the Jews. E., the Seleucids gained control, followed by the Parthians, who reestablished the Persian Empire.But the Abbasids, who were Shi'ite Muslims from Baghdad, quickly defeated the Saracens.The majority of Bukharan Jews live in the Uzbek cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent, and Kokand, in Tajikistan's capital, Dushanbe, and in Kyrgyzstan's capital, Bishkek. Whether or not this is the case, the Bukharians can trace their ancestry back to the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, the King of Persia, in 539 B. During the spread of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries, control of Bukhara was transferred between many different Arab rulers.Also, a large number of Bukharan Jews have made Some Bukharan Jews claim they are the descendents of the ten lost tribes of Israel who were exiled by the Assyrians in the 8th century B. The Saracens overpowered Bukhara in 709 and founded the Umayyad dynasty throughout the former Persian Empire.Members of the group call themselves [Y]Isroʾel (refined style) or Yahūdī (official/neutral style); the latter term was also applied to them in official Persian (Tajik) and Chagha­tay (Ùaḡatāy, Uzbek) terminology before the Russian conquest of Central Asia. There are no reliable statistics on Jews in Central Asia before the 19th century. In 1926, according to the Soviet census, the number of Central Asian Jews in the USSR was 18,698 (Lorimer, p. The first Soviet census after World War II, conducted in 1959, listed 25,990 Central Asian Jews who were native speakers of Tajik (, p. At a cau­tious estimate, about 10 percent of Central Asian Jews who abandoned the Jewish dialect of Tajik in favor of Russian (or Uzbek in a very few instances) must be added to this figure, bringing the estimate of all Central Asian Jews within the borders of the USSR to between 28,000 and 29,000. Despite a ban since the mid­-1920s, a pejorative derivative (member of a national [ethnic] minority). In 1832 an Anglican missionary of Jewish origin, J. 55, table 23), of whom 18,172 were dwelling in the Uzbek SSR (including Tajikistan; Amitin-Shapiro, 1933, pp. They were already outnumbered even there, however, by Ashkenazis (Jews of European origin, 19,611; ibid., p. Samarkand, with 7,740 Central Asian Jews, was the largest center of concentration (ibid., p. The low natural increase between 19 is to be explained by emigration begin­ning in the late 1920s and by a long-term lowering of the birthrate caused by the Great Terror and World War II (see below), when males of procreative age were sep­arated from women and many of them were killed.

They view Reform Judaism, Reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative Judaism as heretical non-Jewish movements.

A major demographic event of the 1970s was large-scale Bu­kharan Jewish emigration from the USSR (see below). It is probable therefore that the pilgrims called Parthians were those who spoke the Parthian language as their native tongue, which means that they had to have been settled in a Parthian-speaking area for several generations.

Calculations based on the Soviet census of 1979 (, pp. 99), when Babylon, with its large Jewish popu­lation, was absorbed into the empire, and it can be suggested that at the same period they reached parts of Central Asia that also belonged to the empire. 691, 802) that Jews dwelled “in all the provinces” (3:6, 8; 8:5, 12; ) of the kingdom of Persia, Parthia (covering approximately the territory of the southwestern part of the Turkmen Soviet republic and the northern part of the modern Iranian province of Khorasan), the hereditary domain of the Arsacid dynasty, would certainly have been included among them. Gamlīʾēl the Elder, an early 1st-century president of the Sanhedrin (the supreme religious Jewish legislative body, based in Jerusalem), is said to have addressed a letter “to our brethren, sons of the exile in Babylon and our brethren that [dwell] in Media, and to the rest of the exile of Israel” (Babylonian Talmud, “Sanhedrīn,” 11b). 126), Āq-Masjed (Perovsk, Kzyl-Orda; Dobrosmy­slov, 1912a, p.

They maintained control of the region until 874, when the Saminids, who were Sunni Muslims, took over and made Bukhara the capital of their empire.

The Saminids were fairly tolerant of the Bukharan Jews, though they forced all non-Muslims who refused to convert to pay heavy taxes.

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